Physiology - Respiratory I - Structure and function

2010/1: What are the causes of hypoxaemia in a person breathing room air? Explain why ventilation-perfusion inequality causes a reduced arterial pO2 while pCO2 remains relatively normal.

2010/1: What are the factors which keep the fluid out of the alveoli?

2010/1: What is pulmonary compliance? What are the factors that decrease and increase pulmonary compliance? What are the physiological effects of surfactant on the lung?

2009/2: What are the major factors that effect pulmonary vascular resistance in the normal lung? Why is pulmonary flow so sensitive to pulmonary vascular pressures?

2009/2: Please draw the curve demonstrating the relationship between 02 concentration and pO2. How does this change in the anaemic and polycythemic individual? What is the effect of carbon monoxide on these curves?

2009/1: In the lung, what is surfactant and how does it work? What are the physiological advantages of surfactant?

2009/1: How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood? How does venous blood carry more CO2 than arterial blood?

2009/1: What is the alveolar gas equation? How do you calculate the alveolar-arterial gradient? What is the physiological significance of the A-a gradient?

2008/2: How is carbon dioxide transported from the tissues to the lungs. What is meant by 'chloride shift'?

2008/1: Describe the relationship between ventilation and perfusion of the lung in a person while standing? What are the effects of V/Q inequality on gas exchange? What effect does increasing ventilation to the lungs have on arterial PO2 and PCO2?

2008/1: What factors impact on resistance in airways? What factors cause turbulent flow in airways?

2008/1: Define lung compliance. What factors influence lung compliance? What else does surfactant do?

2007/2: Please describe the relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular pressure. How does lung volume influence pulmonary vascular resistnce?

2007/2: What factors influence the distribution of pulmonary arterial blood? What extrapulmonary factors influence pulmonary blood flow?

2006/1: What factors affect airway resistance? What factors affect the radius of the airway?

2006/1: How is oxygen transported in the blood? Describe the oxygen dissociation curve. In what forms is CO2 transported in the blood?

2006/1: What factors affect the diffusion of gases across the alveolar capillary membrane?

2005/2: Describe the lung defence mechanisms. What are the metabolic and endocrine functions of the lungs?

2005/2: Describe the relationship of pressure and wall tension in connected alveoli. What are the effects of surfactant in the alveoli? How does the surfactant achieve this?

2004/2: What is the definition of dead space in the lung? How can the physiological dead space be measured? What will lead to increased physiological dead space?

2004/2: In the respiratory system, what changes occur with exercise? What happens to the pulmonary circulation during exercise? What changes occur in venous gases during exercise?

2003/2: What factors determine the work of breathing. What variables affect elastic workload? What variables affect viscous resistance?

2003/2: What is the relationship between intrapleural pressure and lung volume? What variables affect pulmonary compliance? Describe how regional differences in intrapleural pressure affect the ventilation.

2003/2: Describe the difference between diffusion limited and perfusion limited gas exchange in the lung. Explain how oxygen exchange is limited across the pulmonary capillary? What would you expect to be the effect of heavy exercise on oxygen uptake in the pulmonary capillary?

2003/1: How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood? Draw and label the carbon dioxide dissociation curve.