Pharmacology - Cardiovascular I

2010/1: What are the cardiac effects of amiodarone at a cellular level? What are the mechanisms of pharmacokinetic interaction with amiodarone and give two examples.

2010/1: Describe the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. How does this differ from propanolol in its action at beta receptors? How do beta blockers control hypertension?

2009/2: What is the mechanism of action for calcium channel blockers? What are the toxic effects of calcium channel blockers?

2009/1: What are the effects of adrenaline on the blood vessels in different tissue? What receptors mediate these effects? Describe the effects of adrenaline on other organs besides the heart.

2009/1: What are the actions of digoxin on the heart at therapeutic levels? Are the parasympathetic effects uniform throughout the heart?

2008/2: What is flecainide's mechanism of action? Describe flecainide's pharmacokinetics. In which patients is it contraindicated?

2008/1: What is the cellular mechanism of action of GTN? How does GTN relieve anginal pain? Outline the pharmacokinetics of sublingual GTN.

2007/2: Describe the actions of dantrolene. What are the uses? What is the dose for acute management of malignant hyperthermia?

2007/1: How does GTN exert its effect on smooth muscle? What are the clinical effects of GTN?

2007/1: What are the pharmacokinetic features of beta blockers? What are the effects of beta blockers? What are the effects of beta blockers in overdose?

2006/2: At a cellular level describe the action of calcium channel blockers. What are the differences in pharmacodymaics between dihydropyridines and other calcium channel blockers? How are these differing pharmacodynamics reflected in their side effect profile?

2006/2: How do you classify class I antiarrhythmic drugs? Give examples of each. What are their different effects on the action potential?

2006/1: Describe the molecular action of digoxin. What are the cardiac effects? What are the autonomic effects of digoxin? What are the non-cardiac manifestations of digoxin toxicity? Describe the pharmacokinetics of digoxin.

2006/1: Describe the mechanism of action of amiodarone. What are the clinical uses of amiodarone? Describe the potential adverse effects of amiodarone.

2005/1: Describe the pharmacodynamics of propranolol. How does carvedilol differ propranolol?

2004/2: What is the mechanism of action of glyceryl trinitrate in smooth muscle? How do nitrates relieve angina?

2004/2: What are the clinical manifestations of digoxin toxicity? What is the specific antidote for digoxin toxicity? What are the indications for the use of digibind?

2004/2: Describe the pharmacokinetics of propranolol. Describe the cardiovascular effects of beta blockers.

2003/2: What is the mechanism of action of indirectly acting cholinomimetics? What types of indirectly acting cholinomimetics are there? Give examples. What are the cardiovascular effects of these groups of drugs?

2003/2: Regarding beta agonists, by what cellular mechanism do they exert their effects? Compare the cardiovascular effects of adrenaline and dobutamine.

2003/2: Describe the basic mechanism of action of atropine. What are the therapeutic applications of drugs that block muscarinic receptors? What are the toxic effects of antimuscarinic overdose?

2003/1: What is the mechanism of action of adenosine? How is it administered? What are the indications for the use of adenosine? What are its adverse effects?