Pharmacology - General II, pharmacodynamics

2010/1: During clinical drug trials, what factors might confound the results? What can be done to minimise the confounders?

2010/1: Describe the difference between a competitive and an irreversible antagonist. Give an example of an antagonist?

2010/1: What are the steps in activation of a second messenger? Give an example of a second messenger and type of response it produces?

2010/1: Define the term ‘spare receptor’. What is the significance of spare receptor?

2009/2: Draw and explain a dose-response curve for an agonist. Show how this curve is altered in the presence of an irreversible non-competetive antagonist. How does this differ from a competitive antagonist?

2008/2: What is the difference between efficacy and potency? What factors affect a drug's efficacy?

2008/1: In reference to drug action, what is a second-messenger? What steps are involved in the action of a drug via a second messenger?

2008/1: What is an antagonist? Explain the differences between a competetive and irreversible antagonist, illustrating with examples.

2007/1: Explain the difference between potency and efficacy.

2006/2: What are spare receptors? Describe the two main mechanisms that account for the "spare receptor" phenomenon. What is the effect on the dose-response curve of an agonist with increasing concentrations of an irreversible antagonist?

2006/2: Describe the three major steps in a second-messenger receptor system. Give three examples of ligands that work via a second-messenger.

2006/1: Define potency. How does potency differ from efficacy for a given drug?

2005/1: What is meant by the term efficacy? How does efficacy differ from potency? What factors influence the potency of a drug?

2005/1: List the factors which contribute to the variation in response to a drug. What mechanisms are involved?

2004/2: What do you understand by the term second messenger? Please describe the common steps in the mechanism of their activation.

2004/2: Explain the phases of testing of a new drug. Describe ways in which new drugs might be discovered or produced.

2003/2: What do you understand by the term second messenger? Describe the common steps in the activation of second messengers, giving examples.

2003/2: How does an irreversible antagonist alter the concentration effect curve for a drug? How does this compare to a competitive antagonist? Which of these does the curve for a partial agonist most resemble?