Pharmacology - General I, pharmacokinetics

2010/1: What pharmacokinetic variables affect drug levels? What pharmacodynamic variables affect drug dosing?

2009/2: What are the sites of drug biotransformation? What is a Phase I biotransformation reaction? What is meant by enzyme induction in liver biotransformation?

2009/2: What formula describes drug clearance? What is flow-dependent elimination? Can you name any drugs that have flow-dependent elimination?

2009/1: Define the volume of distribution of a drug. Fluoxetine has a volume of distribution of 2500L/70kg. What does this mean? Give an example of a drug with a low volume of distribution.

2009/1: What is the definition of drug half-life? What disease states can affect drug half life?

2009/1: What are first-order elimination kinetics? How is it different to zero-order kinetics? Give some examples of drugs with zero-order kinetics.

2008/2: What is the first pass effect? How can the first pass effect be reduced?

2008/2: What is the role of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system? What is the mechanism of CP450 enzyme induction and give examples?

2008/1: Define the term "bioavailability". What factors limit drug bioavailability following oral administration? What methods of drug
delivery are used to overcome bioavailability problems?

2008/1: By what different routes can drugs be administered? Discuss the factors affecting absorption from the oral route. Give examples of drug administration that bypass the first pass effect.

2007/2: What is the first pass effect? To which routes of drug administration is it important? What is the formula for the extraction ratio?

2007/2: What is the role of the cytochrome P450 system in drug metabolism? What are the effects of oxidation on the drug? List the basic mechanisms by which cytochrome P450 enzymes are induced, giving examples.

2007/1: Define the term "volume of distribution". How is it possible for a drug to have a Vd of 1600L/70kg? Give an example of a drug with a high Vd, a low Vd and that approximating total body water. If a drug is distributed in the total body water, what is its Vd?

2007/1: Describe Phase I and Phase II reactions. What organs are involved?

2006/2: What is the half-life of a drug? How may it be expressed in relation to other pharmacokinetic parameters? Give examples of factors that affect half-life.

2006/1: Define volume of distribution. How can a drug have a Vd greater than total body water? Give an example. What are the patient factors that alter Vd?

2006/1: What is meant by the term capacity-limited elimination? Give some examples of drugs with zero order kinetics.

2005/1: What is bioavailability? What factors influence the bioavailability of a drug?

2003/2: Define bioavailability. What are the reasons why an orally administered drug might have less than 100% bioavailability? What factors contribute to first pass elimination? What routes of administration other than parenteral can be used to avoid first pass metabolism?

2003/1: What do you understand by volume of distribution? What factors affect volume of distribution? What is the importance of Vd in the overdose situation?

2003/1: What do you understand by biotransformation? Where does biotransformation occur?